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Dermatite atopique (Atopical Dermatitis)
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Dermatite atopique (Atopical Dermatitis)

Edition: 1st
Publisher: Wolters Kluwer France SA
ISBN: 978-2-704-01223-7
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La dermatite atopique (DA) ou eczéma constitutionnel est une affection inflammatoire prurigineuse chronique de la peau. Il s'agit d'une maladie fréquente puisqu'elle concerne environ 20 % des enfants. L'évolution est le plus souvent favorable avec une régression totale dans la majorité des cas vers l'âge de 3 ans. La prévalence chez l'adulte est actuellement voisine de 4 %. Il s'agit d'une affection multifactorielle associant un terrain génétique particulier et l'action de facteurs environnementaux. Ces facteurs environnementaux pourraient expliquer une incidence en augmentation de la maladie et une inégale répartition dans le monde puisque cette maladie concerne actuellement surtout les pays « développés ». La physiopathologie est de moins en moins discutée.

La DA est l'expression clinique d'un dysfonctionnement immunitaire d'origine inconnue qui rend le malade sensible aux constituants les plus banals de l'environnement comme les pneumallergènes, les aliments, mais aussi le stress. Le système immunitaire est considéré comme hyper-réactif, provoquant une exacerbation des réponses aux molécules même banales de l'environnement.

- Du point de vue thérapeutique, plusieurs possibilités sont offertes : on peut agir sur l'inflammation par une prescription de dermocorticoïdes.
- Certains auteurs préconisent l'éviction stricte des allergènes éventuellement mis en évidence ou des modifications alimentaires mais cette attitude est difficile à localiser en pratique.
- On peut aussi moduler les réactions immunitaires par l'utilisation d'immunosuppresseurs locaux ou généraux.

Atopical dermatitis (AD) or constitutional eczema is a chronic pruritic inflammatory skin disorder. This is a frequent ailment since it affects approximately 20% of children. The outcome is usually favourable with total regression in the majority of cases at around the age of 3. Prevalence in adults is currently around 4%. This is a multifactor illness associating a particular genetic makeup and the action of environmental factors. These environmental factors could explain an increasing incidence of the ailment and an unequal distribution in the world since this ailment currently concerns in particular “developed” countries. The physiopathology is becoming discussed less and less.

AD is the clinical expression of an immune malfunctioning of unknown origin that makes the patient sensitive to the most commonplace constituents of environment such as inhalation allergens, foods, but also stress. The immune system is considered to be hyperactive, causing an exacerbation of the responses to molecules, even commonplace, in the environment.

- From the therapeutic point of view, several possibilities are offered: it is possible to act on the information by prescribing dermocorticoids.
- Some authors recommend the strict avoidance of any allergens identified or changes of food intake, but this attitude is difficult to apply in practice.
- It is also possible to modulate the immune reactions by the use of local or general immunosuppressors.

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  • Publisher: Wolters Kluwer France SA
  • Product Type: Book
  • ISBN: 978-2-704-01223-7
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  • Language: French
  • Edition: 1st
  • Pages: 0
  • Illustrations: 0
  • Year: 0

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